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Medicare Supplement Insurance, also known as "Medigap" insurance, provides supplemental health insurance coverage for Medicare beneficiaries.  Individuals in the "original" Medicare program may want to obtain Medicare Supplement ("Medigap") insurance because Medicare often covers less than the total cost of the beneficiary's health care.


Medicare is divided into two coverage components, Part A and Part B.  Both programs have gaps in coverage that may be covered by supplemental insurance.




Medicare Part A Gaps


Medicare Part A (also known as Hospital Insurance) covers inpatient hospital, inpatient skilled nursing facility, home health, and hospice services.  The following is a partial list of gaps in coverage that are not reimbursed by Medicare:

Medicare Part B Gaps


Medicare Part B (also known as Supplementary Medicare Insurance) provides coverage for a variety of outpatient and physician services.  It also pays for durable medical equipment, prosthetic devices, supplies incident to physician's services, and ambulance transportation.  The following is a list of gaps in coverage that are not reimbursed by Medicare:



Medicare beneficiaries fill in Medicare's coverage gaps in a number of different ways, including:

Medicare beneficiaries who are also eligible for Medicaid (Title 19) do not need Medigap insurance since Medicaid will cover the cost of their health care expenses.  People who do not qualify for Medicaid but are within 100% of the federal poverty level are eligible for coverage under a program known as the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary Program (QMB).  QMB program benefits include:

Thus individuals who qualify for the QMB program generally also do not need, and should not pay for, Medicare Supplement Insurance.  The qualifying income figures change in April each year.  Contact the Department of Social Services office in your area to find out more about Title 19 and QMB eligibility and enrollment.


Individuals who do not qualify for QMB because of excess income may qualify for the Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary Program (SLMB) or Qualified Individual Program (QI).  People who have incomes within 120% - 135% of the federal poverty level are eligible for SLMB or QI coverage.  However, SLMB and QI only pay for the Medicare Part B monthly premium.  Therefore, SLMB and QI individuals may still want to purchase Medigap insurance if they can afford to do so.  Like QMB, the qualifying income figures change in April each year and the programs are administered by the Department of Social Services.


Some employers offer health insurance coverage to their retirees. Retirees who are covered by such group plans may not need to purchase an individual policy.  While a retiree may choose to switch to an individual plan, this may not be a good choice because group retiree plans usually do not cost anything to the individual and the group coverage is often as good or better than most individual Medigap policies.  Thus the individual should compare his company's policy costs and coverage with the ten Medigap policies.  The retiree should also consider the stability of his company.  If it is conceivable that the company will falter, that his costs will rise, or that coverage will diminish, the individual may wish to purchase an independent policy.  Remember, however, that if a new policy is purchased the old policy must be dropped.


Most Medicare beneficiaries are not eligible for Medicaid or QMB, however, and may want to obtain Medigap insurance.  Approximately two-thirds purchase Medigap policies.  As of July 31, 1992, Medigap policies were standardized throughout the United States.  This mandatory standardization was a result of legislation passed by Congress through the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990.  There are ten specific benefit plans which federal law permits to be sold as Medigap policies. Two new plans were added in 2006.  States may allow all or some of these plans to be marketed. Insurance companies may sell all or some of the plans which the individual state allows them to market.  However, there is a basic benefit package, known as the "core benefit" plan, which must be allowed in all states and which must be offered by any company which sells Medigap insurance.


Although individual Medigap policies have been standardized since 1992, some seniors are still covered by previously issued non-standardized plans. These policies are no longer available for purchase.  However, individuals may continue to keep their old policies and many people have chosen to do so.  Individuals covered by an old policy should consider changing to a new "standardized" plan, and should compare the benefits and costs of each of the policies.  Then an informed decision can be made.  An individual who purchases a new standardized policy can only have one Medigap policy and must therefore drop the old, non-standardized plan.  This protects people from the unnecessary costs of duplicate coverage.




The twelve standardized benefit policies are labeled A through L.  Policy A contains the basic or "core" benefits.  The other eleven policies contain the core benefits plus one or more additional benefits.  The following is a list of the benefits that are contained in the core policy and that must be contained in all new Medigap policies sold beginning July 31, 1992:

  1. Part A Hospital Coinsurance for Days 61-90 ($267/2009);

  2. Part A Hospital Lifetime Reserve Coinsurance for Days 91-150 ($534/2009);

  3. 365 Lifetime Hospital Days Beyond Medicare Coverage;

  4. Parts A and B Three Pint Blood Deductible;

  5. Part B 20% Coinsurance.

Additional benefits are offered in policies B through L.  Each plan offers a different combination of these benefits in addition to the core benefits.  Additional benefits are:

  1. Part A Skilled Nursing Facility Coinsurance for Days 21-100 ($133.50/2009);

  2. Part A Hospital Deductible ($1068/2009);

  3. Part B Deductible ($135/2009);

  4. Part B Charges above the Medicare Approved Amount (if provider does not accept assignment);

  5. Foreign Travel Emergency Coverage;

  6. At-Home Recovery (Home Health Aid Services);

  7. Preventive Medical Care.

Policies B through L vary considerably.  Beneficiaries should review the policy packages carefully and decide which coverages are appropriate for them.  The chart at the end of these materials illustrates the various coverages for Medigap policies A through L.


There are many issues which must be considered before purchasing Medigap insurance.  For example, what specific benefits does the individual require?  How much will the premiums cost?


Are the benefits worth the cost?  Will the individual be able to afford the premiums in the future? What if he/she decides to switch to a Medicare Advantage plan and then wants to, or has to, switch back?


Certain consumer protections are provided pursuant to federal law and protect Medicare beneficiaries across the country.  Connecticut provides additional protections. Some of those protections are described below.




Guaranteed Issue


Guaranteed issue means that an insurance company is required to sell a policy and may not force an individual to prove "insurability" by making the person pass an insurance physical examination.


All newly entitled Medicare beneficiaries have a right to guaranteed issue of any Medigap policy which is offered for sale for the first six months after their Medicare entitlement begins.  This right only applies to Medicare beneficiaries who are 65 years of age or older. Insurance companies are not required by federal law to offer the same range of Medigap policies to Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities that they offer for sale to Medicare beneficiaries over age 65.  Some states require insurance companies to sell designated Medigap policies to Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities.  Connecticut requires insurance companies to offer Plans A, B and C to Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities, if they offer these policies for sale to older Medicare beneficiaries.  Connecticut also requires that insurance companies which offer plans A-L sell these plans at all times to Medicare beneficiaries who are over age 65.


Since 1997, pursuant to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997,   Medicare beneficiaries who are at least 65 years old are also guaranteed issuance of certain Medigap policies if they apply within 63 days after disenrollment from a Medicare managed care plan.  The circumstances under which these rights exist are as follows:

IMPORTANT NOTE: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has stated that the above Balanced Budget Act provisions do NOT apply to Medicare beneficiaries whose Medicare entitlement is based on their disability or upon End Stage Renal Disease.  According to CMS, these provisions apply only to Medicare beneficiaries who are at least 65 years old.

Upon purchasing a Medigap policy, a Medicare beneficiary has 30 days in which to change her mind, cancel the policy and receive a refund of the previously paid premium.


Pre-Existing Conditions


A pre-existing condition exclusion means that health insurance may not cover the costs incurred as a result of a medical condition a person had prior to obtaining the health insurance coverage.  The ability of insurance companies to impose pre-existing condition exclusions has been severely constricted since the enactment of a federal law called "HIPAA."  Under HIPAA, if an individual had health insurance coverage for a period of at least 6 months prior to their initial open enrollment period for Medicare, no pre-existing condition exclusion may be imposed.  Most types of health coverage offer this "creditable coverage," including employee or union group health insurance, retiree health insurance, Medicare Parts A and B and Medicaid (Title 19).


For Medigap purposes, creditable coverage is conferred for the number of months an individual was covered by another Medigap policy or was enrolled in a Medicare HMO.  Thus, if an individual was previously in another Medigap plan or Medicare managed care plan for at least six months, no pre-existing condition limit can be imposed by a new Medigap plan.


Prohibition on Duplicate Policies


Another important provision of the law is that insurance companies and agents are prohibited from selling a beneficiary a second Medigap policy.  An insurance agent is required to disclose this provision to Medicare beneficiaries and must obtain a written acknowledgment.  A new policy may be sold to replace an existing policy, but this fact must also be acknowledged in writing. However, an individual may keep or purchase another medical insurance policy which is not a Medigap policy.  Such policies include hospital indemnification coverage which only provide benefits for hospitalization and nothing else. When an insurance company or independent insurance agency sells such a policy, they must disclose to the purchaser the specific coverage and certify that the policy is not a Medigap policy. 

Agents must also ask if the beneficiary is eligible for Medicaid coverage.  A policy holder who becomes eligible for Medicaid may have premiums suspended for up to two years.  If Medicaid eligibility is terminated during this period, the individual will be able to return to his prior Medigap policy.




In Connecticut, any insurance company which sells Medigap plans A through L must sell them to any Medicare beneficiary over the age of 65 at any time, regardless of age, gender, medical condition or previous health insurance claims history.  Insurance companies are prohibited from refusing coverage under these plans based upon a person's medical conditions or medical history.  This means that insurance companies are not allowed to medically underwrite plans A through L for any Medicare beneficiary over the age of 65.  Thus, no health insurance company may require a health insurance examination of an older Medicare beneficiary prior to authorizing the sale of these Medigap plans.




The Medicare Prescription Drug, Modernization and Improvement Act (MMA) contains provisions which affected Medigap insurance.  This new law, which went into effect on January 1, 2006, changed coverage under Medigap plans H, I, and J and created two additional Medigap plans, designated K and L.


Changes to Medigap Plans H, I, & J


Federal law now prohibits the sale of Medigap plans H, I, or J with prescription coverage.  These plans may continue to be sold without prescription drug coverage and the premiums will be adjusted to reflect this change.


Beneficiaries already enrolled in  Medigap plans H, I, or J on December 31, 2005 may renew their enrollment in these plans as long as they do not enroll in Medicare Part D's prescription drug coverage.  If such a beneficiary does enroll in a Part D prescription drug plan, his or her Medigap plan's coverage will be modified to eliminate prescription drug coverage as of the effective date of the Part D plan.


A beneficiary who delays enrollment in a Part D plan in favor of keeping a Medigap plan which covers prescription drugs faces late enrollment penalties for Part D if that Medigap plan is not considered to be as good as Part D's standard benefit (creditable coverage). Medigap insurance issuers were required to send notice to their enrollees between September 15, 2005 and November 15, 2005 advising them if the Medigap insurance they have is creditable. Most Medigap plans will not be considered creditable coverage because their coverage is not as good as the standard Part D benefit.


Medigap Plans K & L


Beginning January 1, 2006, two new Medigap plans will be offered.  Plan K will fully cover the cost sharing for Part B preventive services, the Part A hospital co-insurance and an additional 365 days of hospital coverage.  It will also cover 50% of the Part A and Part B blood deductibles, the Part B co-insurance, the skilled nursing facility co-insurance, the cost sharing associated with the hospice benefit, and the Part A hospital deductible.  Plan K will cover 100% of all cost sharing under Medicare Parts A and B for the rest of the calendar year once a beneficiary reaches an out-of-pocket limit of $4000 in 2006.


Plan L will fully cover the cost sharing for Part B preventive services, the Part A hospital co-insurance and an additional 365 days of hospital coverage.  It will also cover 75% of the Part A and Part B blood deductibles, the Part B co-insurance, the skilled nursing facility co-insurance, the cost sharing associated with the hospice benefit, and the Part A hospital deductible.  Plan L will cover 100% of all cost sharing under Medicare Parts A and B for the rest of the calendar year once a beneficiary reaches an out-of-pocket limit of $2000 in 2006.




There are many considerations when purchasing Medigap insurance. The most important considerations are the person's medical needs and financial abilities.  The individual should look at his or her current needs and abilities and also try to anticipate future concerns.


Obtaining Coverage and Switching Policies


Remember that under federal law an individual age 65 or older may enroll in any of the twelve policies during the six-month period after first being covered by Part B.  Connecticut beneficiaries over age 65 are guaranteed the ability to purchase Medigap plans A-L beyond this six-month period.


Remember that prior coverage under another Medigap policy or Medicare Managed care plan counts toward the six-month waiting period for coverage of pre-existing conditions.   Finally, some companies have liberal rules about letting a person switch from one policy to another policy offered by that company.




The next major consideration in selecting a Medigap policy is cost.  A person must be able to afford the particular policy he or she desires.  There is a great deal of price difference from policy to policy.


There is also a big difference in price from company to company for the same policy.  For example, monthly premiums for companies selling Policy C in Connecticut range from $138.50 to $310.00 yet all the policies offer the exact same benefits.  Thus, before purchasing one of the higher priced policies, the buyer should be certain that he desires something else about the company besides the policy's benefits (for example, a reputation for timely claims processing).
















Hospital coinsurance:
Days 61 to 91

Hospital coinsurance:
Days 91 to 150

Hospital Payment in full:
365 additional days

Part A and Part B blood deductible:
First three pints of blood



Part B 20% coinsurance:
Physician and other services

















SNF coinsurance:
Days 21 to 100





Part A Hospital Deductible




Part B Annual Deductible









Part B Excess Charges:
Coverage for up to 115% percent of Medicare's approved charge (Medigap policy will either pay 80% or 100% of excess charge)

















Foreign Travel Emergency:
$250 deductible, 80% of the cost of emergency care during the first two months of the trip, $50,000 lifetime limit






At-Home Recovery:
Maximum benefit of $1,600 annually









*Effective 1/1/06, plans H, I, and J can no longer be sold with prescription drug benefits.  Beneficiaries who purchased these plans before 1/1/06 are allowed to renew them and to retain the plans' prescription drug benefits.

** Plan K covers 100% of cost sharing for Medicare Part B preventive services and 100% of all cost sharing under Medicare Parts A and B for the balance of the calendar year once an individual has reached the out-of-pocket limit on annual expenditures of $4,000 in 2006.

** Plan L covers 100% of cost sharing for Medicare Part B preventive services and 100% of all cost sharing under Medicare Parts A and B for the balance of the calendar year once an individual has reached the out-of-pocket limit on annual expenditures of $2,000 in 2006.



CMS released the 2008 deductible amount for Medigap high deductible plans F & J; effective January 1, 2008, the annual deductible amount for those two plans is $2,000. The high deductible amount for Medigap plans F and J is updated each year and is based on the August CPI-U figures released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The full text of the announcement is available on the CMS website at:  This figure represents the out-of-pocket expense, excluding premiums, that a beneficiary must incur before the policy begins paying any benefits.   Under the high deductible option, policies pay 100% of covered out-of-pocket expenses once the deductible has been satisfied in a year.  Note, the high deductible option for benefit packages F or J was added by Section 4032 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Sec. 1882(p) of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 1395ss(p).

Copyright 2010 Center for Medicare Advocacy, Inc.